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substr_compare> <strtoupper
[edit] Last updated: Sat, 12 May 2012

view this page in


(PHP 4, PHP 5)

strtrTranslate characters or replace substrings


string strtr ( string $str , string $from , string $to )
string strtr ( string $str , array $replace_pairs )

If given three arguments, this function returns a copy of str where all occurrences of each (single-byte) character in from have been translated to the corresponding character in to, i.e., every occurrence of $from[$n] has been replaced with $to[$n], where $n is a valid offset in both arguments.

If from and to have different lengths, the extra characters in the longer of the two are ignored. The length of str will be the same as the return value's.

If given two arguments, the second should be an array in the form array('from' => 'to', ...). The return value is a string where all the occurrences of the array keys have been replaced by the corresponding values. The longest keys will be tried first. Once a substring has been replaced, its new value will not be searched again.

In this case, the keys and the values may have any length, provided that there is no empty key; additionaly, the length of the return value may differ from that of str. However, this function will be the most efficient when all the keys have the same size.



The string being translated.


The string being translated to to.


The string replacing from.


The replace_pairs parameter may be used instead of to and from, in which case it's an array in the form array('from' => 'to', ...).

Return Values

Returns the translated string.

If replace_pairs contains a key which is an empty string (""), FALSE will be returned.


Example #1 strtr() example

//In this form, strtr() does byte-by-byte translation
//Therefore, we are assuming a single-byte encoding here:
$addr strtr($addr"äåö""aao");

The next example shows the behavior of strtr() when called with only two arguments. Note the preference of the replacements ("h" is not picked because there are longer matches) and how replaced text was not searched again.

Example #2 strtr() example with two arguments

= array("h" => "-""hello" => "hi""hi" => "hello");
strtr("hi all, I said hello"$trans);

The above example will output:

hello all, I said hi

The two modes of behavior are substantially different. With three arguments, strtr() will replace bytes; with two, it may replace longer substrings.

Example #3 strtr() behavior comparison

echo strtr("baab""ab""01"),"\n";

$trans = array("ab" => "01");

The above example will output:


See Also

  • str_replace() - Replace all occurrences of the search string with the replacement string
  • preg_replace() - Perform a regular expression search and replace

substr_compare> <strtoupper
[edit] Last updated: Sat, 12 May 2012
add a note add a note User Contributed Notes strtr
antimoz at gmail dot com 09-Feb-2012 03:08
Here is my array for char normalization:
= array(
'Á'=>'A', 'À'=>'A', 'Â'=>'A', 'Ã'=>'A', 'Å'=>'A', 'Ä'=>'A', 'Æ'=>'AE', 'Ç'=>'C',
'É'=>'E', 'È'=>'E', 'Ê'=>'E', 'Ë'=>'E', 'Í'=>'I', 'Ì'=>'I', 'Î'=>'I', 'Ï'=>'I', 'Ð'=>'Eth',
'Ñ'=>'N', 'Ó'=>'O', 'Ò'=>'O', 'Ô'=>'O', 'Õ'=>'O', 'Ö'=>'O', 'Ø'=>'O',
'Ú'=>'U', 'Ù'=>'U', 'Û'=>'U', 'Ü'=>'U', 'Ý'=>'Y',
'á'=>'a', 'à'=>'a', 'â'=>'a', 'ã'=>'a', 'å'=>'a', 'ä'=>'a', 'æ'=>'ae', 'ç'=>'c',
'é'=>'e', 'è'=>'e', 'ê'=>'e', 'ë'=>'e', 'í'=>'i', 'ì'=>'i', 'î'=>'i', 'ï'=>'i', 'ð'=>'eth',
'ñ'=>'n', 'ó'=>'o', 'ò'=>'o', 'ô'=>'o', 'õ'=>'o', 'ö'=>'o', 'ø'=>'o',
'ú'=>'u', 'ù'=>'u', 'û'=>'u', 'ü'=>'u', 'ý'=>'y',
'ß'=>'sz', 'þ'=>'thorn', 'ÿ'=>'y'
Sam 01-Feb-2012 10:33
Case Insensitive strtr

function stritr($string, $one, $two=null) {
    if (
is_string($one)) {
strtr($string, strtoupper($one) . strtolower($one), "$two$two");
    } else if (
is_array($one)) {
$strReturn = $string
foreach ($one as $key => $val) {
$strReturn = preg_replace("'$key'i", $val, $strReturn);
Michael Schuijff 24-Oct-2011 10:02
I found that this approach is often faster than strtr() and won't change the same thing in your string twice (as opposed to str_replace(), which will overwrite things in the order of the array you feed it with):

function replace ($text, $replace) {
$keys = array_keys($replace);
$length = array_combine($keys, array_map('strlen', $keys));
$array[] = $text;
$count = 1;
    while (
$key = key($length)) {
        if (
strpos($text, $key) !== false) {
            for (
$i = 0; $i < $count; $i += 2) {
                if ((
$pos = strpos($array[$i], $key)) === false) continue;
array_splice($array, $i, 1, array(substr($array[$i], 0, $pos), $replace[$key], substr($array[$i], $pos + strlen($key))));
$count += 2;
Chris 04-Feb-2011 12:49
Hope this is useful when you need to see ASCII control characters:
= array(chr(0) => '^@/NUL/null', chr(1) => '^A/SOH/start of heading', chr(2) => '^B/STX/start of text', chr(3) => '^C/ETX/end of text', chr(4) => '^D/EOT/end of transmisssion', chr(5) => '^E/ENQ/enquiry', chr(6) => '^F/ACK/acknowledge', chr(7) => '^G/BEL/bell', chr(8) => '^H/BS/backspace', chr(9) => '^I/TAB/horizontal tab', chr(10) => '^J/LF/NL/line feed/new line', chr(11) => '^K/VT/vertical tab', chr(12) => '^L/FF/NP/form feed/new page/', chr(13) => '^M/CR/carrige return', chr(14) => '^N/SO/shift out', chr(15) => '^O/SI/shift in', chr(16) => '^P/DLE/data link escape', chr(17) => '^Q/DC1/device control 1', chr(18) => '^R/DC2/device control 2', chr(19) => '^S/DC3/device control 3', chr(20) => '^T/DC4/device control 4', chr(21) => '^U/NAK/negative acknowledge', chr(22) => '^V/SYN/synchronous idle', chr(23) => '^W/ETB/end of transmission block', chr(24) => '^X/CAN/cancel', chr(25) => '^Y/EM/end of medium', chr(26) => '^Z/SUB/substiute', chr(27) => '^[/ESC/escape', chr(28) => '^\/FS/file separator', chr(29) => '^]/GS/group separator', chr(30) => '^^/RS/record separator', chr(31) => '^_/US/unit separator', chr(32) => 'Space');

$x = 0;
$pad = strlen(strlen($str));
'character ', str_pad($x+1, $pad), ' = ', strtr($str[$x], $xlate), ' (ascii ', ord($str[$x++]), ')';
sales at mk2solutions dot com 29-Jun-2010 11:59
This is what we use for prepping data that is going to be used for shortURLs or just needs to be completely cleaned

['normalizeChars'] = array(
'Š'=>'S', 'š'=>'s', 'Ð'=>'Dj','Ž'=>'Z', 'ž'=>'z', 'À'=>'A', 'Á'=>'A', 'Â'=>'A', 'Ã'=>'A', 'Ä'=>'A',
'Å'=>'A', 'Æ'=>'A', 'Ç'=>'C', 'È'=>'E', 'É'=>'E', 'Ê'=>'E', 'Ë'=>'E', 'Ì'=>'I', 'Í'=>'I', 'Î'=>'I',
'Ï'=>'I', 'Ñ'=>'N', 'Ò'=>'O', 'Ó'=>'O', 'Ô'=>'O', 'Õ'=>'O', 'Ö'=>'O', 'Ø'=>'O', 'Ù'=>'U', 'Ú'=>'U',
'Û'=>'U', 'Ü'=>'U', 'Ý'=>'Y', 'Þ'=>'B', 'ß'=>'Ss','à'=>'a', 'á'=>'a', 'â'=>'a', 'ã'=>'a', 'ä'=>'a',
'å'=>'a', 'æ'=>'a', 'ç'=>'c', 'è'=>'e', 'é'=>'e', 'ê'=>'e', 'ë'=>'e', 'ì'=>'i', 'í'=>'i', 'î'=>'i',
'ï'=>'i', 'ð'=>'o', 'ñ'=>'n', 'ò'=>'o', 'ó'=>'o', 'ô'=>'o', 'õ'=>'o', 'ö'=>'o', 'ø'=>'o', 'ù'=>'u',
'ú'=>'u', 'û'=>'u', 'ý'=>'y', 'ý'=>'y', 'þ'=>'b', 'ÿ'=>'y', 'ƒ'=>'f'

cleanForShortURL($toClean) {
$toClean     =     str_replace('&', '-and-', $toClean);
$toClean     =    trim(preg_replace('/[^\w\d_ -]/si', '', $toClean));//remove all illegal chars
$toClean     =     str_replace(' ', '-', $toClean);
$toClean     =     str_replace('--', '-', $toClean);
strtr($toClean, $GLOBALS['normalizeChars']);

This process cleans up any special characters and also coverts strings to a readable safe URL format.
elloromtz at gmail dot com 19-Apr-2010 05:08
If you supply 3 arguments and the 2nd is an array, strtr will search the "A" from "Array" (because you're treating it as a scalar string) and replace it with the 3rd argument:

strtr('Analogy', array('x'=>'y'),  '_'); //'_nalogy'

so in reality the above code has the same affect as:

strtr('Analogy', 'A' , '_');
Anonymous 25-Nov-2009 12:09
Here's a one-liner to strip out non-standard ascii characters, inspired by joeldegan AT yahoo's post below.

= preg_replace("/[^\x9\xA\xD\x20-\x7F]/", "", $old);
nvyktor 09-Sep-2009 07:02
Hi all,

as u probably know the is some truoble with the (for example) hungarian special characters. If I used the htmlentities() function, the simple chars had benn converted to the basic format, for example: & aacute;. However this was very simple, some cases it needs more transformation.

As I would like to use the correct caracters even in php, html, js, and more, a wrote this short code to solve this issue:

function charcode ($text) {
$text = htmlentities($text); //to convert the simple spec chars
$search = array("& otilde;","&O tilde;","& ucirc;","&U circ;");
$replace = array("& #337;","& #336;","& #369;","& #368;");
$text = str_replace($search, $replace, $text);

Now I am able to display any spec chars in any browser with any character encoding set.

Hope U will find this helpful.

allixsenos at gmail dot com 16-May-2009 08:55
fixed "normaliza" functions written below to include Slavic Latin characters... also, it doesn't return lowercase any more (you can easily get that by applying strtolower yourself)...

also, renamed to normalize()


function normalize ($string) {
$table = array(
'Š'=>'S', 'š'=>'s', 'Đ'=>'Dj', 'đ'=>'dj', 'Ž'=>'Z', 'ž'=>'z', 'Č'=>'C', 'č'=>'c', 'Ć'=>'C', 'ć'=>'c',
'À'=>'A', 'Á'=>'A', 'Â'=>'A', 'Ã'=>'A', 'Ä'=>'A', 'Å'=>'A', 'Æ'=>'A', 'Ç'=>'C', 'È'=>'E', 'É'=>'E',
'Ê'=>'E', 'Ë'=>'E', 'Ì'=>'I', 'Í'=>'I', 'Î'=>'I', 'Ï'=>'I', 'Ñ'=>'N', 'Ò'=>'O', 'Ó'=>'O', 'Ô'=>'O',
'Õ'=>'O', 'Ö'=>'O', 'Ø'=>'O', 'Ù'=>'U', 'Ú'=>'U', 'Û'=>'U', 'Ü'=>'U', 'Ý'=>'Y', 'Þ'=>'B', 'ß'=>'Ss',
'à'=>'a', 'á'=>'a', 'â'=>'a', 'ã'=>'a', 'ä'=>'a', 'å'=>'a', 'æ'=>'a', 'ç'=>'c', 'è'=>'e', 'é'=>'e',
'ê'=>'e', 'ë'=>'e', 'ì'=>'i', 'í'=>'i', 'î'=>'i', 'ï'=>'i', 'ð'=>'o', 'ñ'=>'n', 'ò'=>'o', 'ó'=>'o',
'ô'=>'o', 'õ'=>'o', 'ö'=>'o', 'ø'=>'o', 'ù'=>'u', 'ú'=>'u', 'û'=>'u', 'ý'=>'y', 'ý'=>'y', 'þ'=>'b',
'ÿ'=>'y', 'Ŕ'=>'R', 'ŕ'=>'r',
strtr($string, $table);

Sidney Ricardo 05-Sep-2008 11:54
This work fine to me:

function normaliza ($string){
$b = 'aaaaaaaceeeeiiiidnoooooouuuuy
$string = utf8_decode($string);    
$string = strtr($string, utf8_decode($a), $b);
$string = strtolower($string);
jorge at seisbits dot com 11-Jul-2008 12:04
If you try to make a strtr of not usual charafters when you are in a utf8 enviroment, you can do that:

function normaliza ($string){
    $string = utf8_decode($string);
    $string = strtr($string, utf8_decode(" ÂÊÎÔÛÀ"), "-AEIOU");
    $string = strtolower($string);
    return $string;
dot dot dot dot dot alexander at gmail dot com 25-Mar-2008 04:09
OK, I debugged the function (had some errors)
Here it is:

    function stritr($string, $one = NULL, $two = NULL){
stritr - case insensitive version of strtr
Author: Alexander Peev
Posted in PHP.NET
        if(  is_string( $one )  ){
            $two = strval( $two );
            $one = substr(  $one, 0, min( strlen($one), strlen($two) )  );
            $two = substr(  $two, 0, min( strlen($one), strlen($two) )  );
            $product = strtr(  $string, ( strtoupper($one) . strtolower($one) ), ( $two . $two )  );
            return $product;
        else if(  is_array( $one )  ){
            $pos1 = 0;
            $product = $string;
            while(  count( $one ) > 0  ){
                $positions = array();
                foreach(  $one as $from => $to  ){
                    if(   (  $pos2 = stripos( $product, $from, $pos1 )  ) === FALSE   ){
                        unset(  $one[ $from ]  );
                        $positions[ $from ] = $pos2;
                if(  count( $one ) <= 0  )break;
                $winner = min( $positions );
                $key = array_search(  $winner, $positions  );
                $product = (   substr(  $product, 0, $winner  ) . $one[$key] . substr(  $product, ( $winner + strlen($key) )  )   );
                $pos1 = (  $winner + strlen( $one[$key] )  );
            return $product;
            return $string;
    }/* endfunction stritr */
}/* endfunction exists stritr */
dot dot dot dot dot alexander at gmail dot com 25-Mar-2008 10:44
Here is the stritr I always needed... I wrote it in 15 minutes... But only after the idea struck me. Hope you find it helpful, and enjoy...
stritr($string, $one = NULL, $two = NULL){
stritr - case insensitive version of strtr
Author: Alexander Peev
Posted in PHP.NET
if(  is_string( $one )  ){
$two = strval( $two );
$one = substr$one, 0, min( strlen($one), strlen($two) )  );
$two = substr$two, 0, min( strlen($one), strlen($two) )  );
$product = strtr$string, ( strtoupper($one) . strtolower($one) ), ( $two . $two )  );
        else if( 
is_array( $one )  ){
$pos1 = 0;
$product = $string;
count( $one ) > ){
$positions = array();
$one as $from => $to  ){
                    if(   ( 
$pos2 = stripos( $product, $from, $pos1 )  ) === FALSE   ){
$one[ $from ]  );
$positions[ $from ] = $pos2;
$winner = min( $positions );
$key = array_search$winner, $positions  );
$product = (   substr$product, 0, $winner  ) . $positions[$key] . substr$product, ( $winner + strlen($key) )  )   );
$pos1 = (  $winner + strlen( $positions[$key] )  );
/* endfunction stritr */
}/* endfunction exists stritr */
Jean-Marc Libs 26-Feb-2008 09:49
A couple of people have suggested examples of use of strstr() in order to do conversions from one charset to the other.

I would like to point out that this is the purpose of iconv().
troelskn at gmail dot com 23-Jan-2008 03:39
Here's another transcribe function. This one converts cp1252 (aka. Windows-1252) into iso-8859-1 (aka. latin1, the default PHP charset). It only transcribes the few exotic characters, which are unique to cp1252.

function transcribe_cp1252_to_latin1($cp1252) {
  return strtr(
      "\x80" => "e",  "\x81" => " ",    "\x82" => "'", "\x83" => 'f',
      "\x84" => '"',  "\x85" => "...",  "\x86" => "+", "\x87" => "#",
      "\x88" => "^",  "\x89" => "0/00", "\x8A" => "S", "\x8B" => "<",
      "\x8C" => "OE", "\x8D" => " ",    "\x8E" => "Z", "\x8F" => " ",
      "\x90" => " ",  "\x91" => "`",    "\x92" => "'", "\x93" => '"',
      "\x94" => '"',  "\x95" => "*",    "\x96" => "-", "\x97" => "--",
      "\x98" => "~",  "\x99" => "(TM)", "\x9A" => "s", "\x9B" => ">",
      "\x9C" => "oe", "\x9D" => " ",    "\x9E" => "z", "\x9F" => "Y"));
ajitsingh4u at gmail dot com 06-Aug-2007 07:36
* Replaces special characters with single quote,double quote and comma for charset iso-8859-1
* replaceSpecialChars()
* @param string $str
* @return string
function replaceSpecialChars($str)
    //`(96) ’(130) „(132) ‘(145) ’(146) “(147) ”(148) ´(180)   // equivalent ascii values of these characters.
    $str = strtr($str, "`’„‘’´", "'','''");
    $str = strtr($str, '“”', '""');
    return $str;
peter dot goodman at gmail dot com 28-Jun-2007 08:17
To the previous comment: great function, one character mapping it is missing is though is:

chr(226) => 'â'
horak.jan AT 22-May-2007 07:11
Here is a function to convert middle-european windows charset (cp1250) to the charset, that php script is written in:

function cp1250_to_utf2($text){
$dict  = array(chr(225) => 'á', chr(228) =>  'ä', chr(232) => 'č', chr(239) => 'ď',
chr(233) => 'é', chr(236) => 'ě', chr(237) => 'í', chr(229) => 'ĺ', chr(229) => 'ľ',
chr(242) => 'ň', chr(244) => 'ô', chr(243) => 'ó', chr(154) => 'š', chr(248) => 'ř',
chr(250) => 'ú', chr(249) => 'ů', chr(157) => 'ť', chr(253) => 'ý', chr(158) => 'ž',
chr(193) => 'Á', chr(196) => 'Ä', chr(200) => 'Č', chr(207) => 'Ď', chr(201) => 'É',
chr(204) => 'Ě', chr(205) => 'Í', chr(197) => 'Ĺ',    chr(188) => 'Ľ', chr(210) => 'Ň',
chr(212) => 'Ô', chr(211) => 'Ó', chr(138) => 'Š', chr(216) => 'Ř', chr(218) => 'Ú',
chr(217) => 'Ů', chr(141) => 'Ť', chr(221) => 'Ý', chr(142) => 'Ž',
chr(150) => '-');
strtr($text, $dict);
joeldegan AT yahoo 07-Apr-2006 08:49
After battling with strtr trying to strip out MS word formatting from things pasted into forms I ended up coming up with this..

it strips ALL non-standard ascii characters, preserving html codes and such, but gets rid of all the characters that refuse to show in firefox.

If you look at this page in firefox you will see a ton of "question mark" characters and so it is not possible to copy and paste those to remove them from strings..  (this fixes that issue nicely, though I admit it could be done a bit better)

function fixoutput($str){
$good[] = 9#tab
$good[] = 10; #nl
$good[] = 13; #cr
$good[] = $a;
$len = strlen($str);
$b=0;$b < $len+1; $b++){
in_array(ord($str[$b]), $good)){
$newstr .= $str[$b];
return $newstr;
martin[dot]pelikan[at]gmail[dot]com 29-Dec-2005 07:20
// if you are upset with windows' ^M characters at the end of the line,
// these two lines are for you:
$trans = array("\x0D" => "");
$text = strtr($orig_text,$trans);

// note that ctrl+M (in vim known as ^M) is hexadecimally 0x0D
tomhmambo at seznam dot cz 20-Dec-2005 02:54
// Windows-1250 to ASCII
// This function replace all Windows-1250 accent characters with
// thier non-accent ekvivalents. Useful for Czech and Slovak languages.

function win2ascii($str)    {   

$str = StrTr($str,
$str = StrTr($str,
$str = StrTr($str,
$str = StrTr($str,

Ezbakhe Yassin <yassin88 at gmail dot com> 31-Aug-2005 03:55
Here you are a simple function to rotate a variable according to an array of possible values. You can make a strict comparison (===).

function rotateValue($string, $values, $strict = TRUE)
    if (!empty(
$string) AND is_array($values))
$valuesCount = count($values);

        for (
$i = 0; $i < $valuesCount; $i++)
            if (
$strict ? ($string === $values[$i]) : ($string == $values[$i]))
$values[($i + 1) % $valuesCount];


For example:

- rotateValue("A", array("A", "B", "C")) will return "B"
- rotateValue("C", array("A", "B", "C")) will return "A"
ru dot dy at gmx dot net 10-Jul-2005 04:20
Posting umlaute here resulted in a mess. Heres a version of the same function that works with preg_replace only:
function getRewriteString($sString) {
$string = strtolower(htmlentities($sString));
$string = preg_replace("/&(.)(uml);/", "$1e", $string);
$string = preg_replace("/&(.)(acute|cedil|circ|ring|tilde|uml);/", "$1", $string);
$string = preg_replace("/([^a-z0-9]+)/", "-", html_entity_decode($string));
$string = trim($string, "-");
-sven ( 20-Apr-2005 11:48
And while we're at it, yet another transcriber (the code formerly known as accent remover). It does accents and umlauts, but also ligatures and runes known to ISO-8859-1. The translation strings must be on one line without any whitespaces in it. They are rendered hardwrapped here because this documentation doesn't allow long lines in notes.

function transcribe($string) {
    $string = strtr($string,
    $string = strtr($string, array("\xC4"=>"Ae", "\xC6"=>"AE", "\xD6"=>"Oe", "\xDC"=>"Ue", "\xDE"=>"TH", "\xDF"=>"ss", "\xE4"=>"ae", "\xE6"=>"ae", "\xF6"=>"oe", "\xFC"=>"ue", "\xFE"=>"th"));

(Funky: ISO-8859-1 does not cover the french "oe" ligature.)
info at oscaralexander dot com 13-Apr-2005 12:32
Here's a nice function for parsing a string to something suitable for URL rewriting (mod_rewrite). It translates all accented characters to their non-accented equivalents and replaces all other non-alphanumeric character with dashes:

function getRewriteString($sString) {
    $string    = htmlentities(strtolower($string));
    $string    = preg_replace("/&(.)(acute|cedil|circ|ring|tilde|uml);/", "$1", $string);
    $string    = preg_replace("/([^a-z0-9]+)/", "-", html_entity_decode($string));
    $string    = trim($string, "-");
    return $string;
Stian 02-Mar-2005 01:58
elonen forgot the character (\xf8)
A (more) complete accent remover:

$txt = strtr($txt,
elonen at iki dot fi 25-Feb-2005 12:24
Yet another accent remover, this time pretty complete and without any 8-bit characters in the script itself:

$txt = strtr($txt,
patrick at p-roocks dot de 06-Feb-2005 02:31
As Daijoubu suggested use str_replace instead of this function for large arrays/subjects. I just tried it with a array of 60 elements, a string with 8KB length, and the execution time of str_replace was faster at factor 20!

Daijoubu 12-Jan-2005 03:19
= str_replace(array_key($replace_array), array_value($replace_array), $s);
be faster?
Perhaps even faster using 2 seperate arrays...
11-Dec-2004 05:20
If you are going to call strtr a lot, consider using str_replace instead, as it is much faster. I cut execution time in half just by doing this.

// i.e. instead of:

// use:
foreach($replace_array as $key=>$value) $s=str_replace($key,$value,$s);
oliver at modix dot de 22-Oct-2004 01:08
Replace control characters in a binary string:

function cc_replace($in) {
        for (
$i = 0; $i <= 31; $i++) {
$from  .= chr($i);
$to    .= ".";
strtr($in, $from, $to);

ktogias at math dot upatras dot gr 23-Sep-2004 03:32
This function is usefull for
accent insensitive regexp
searches into greek (iso8859-7) text:
(Select View -> Character Encoding -> Greek (iso8859-7)
at your browser to see the correct greek characters)

function gr_regexp($mystring){
        foreach($replacement as $group){
                foreach($group as $character){
                        foreach($group as $expcharacter){
        $temp=explode(" ", $mystring);
        for ($i=0;$i<sizeof($temp);$i++){
        return implode(".*",$temp);

$match=gr_regexp(" ");

//The next query string can be sent to MySQL
through mysql_query()
      "Select `column` from `table` where `column2` REGEXP  
from-php-net dot ticket at raf256 dot com 04-Jun-2004 04:59
Hi, before I found strtr() function I quickly wrote own repleacement, if someone is interested,

// by - Rafal Maj
function ConvCharset($from,$to,$s) {
  $S=''; // out put
  for ($i=0; $i<$l; $i++) {
    $c=$s[$i]; // curr char
    $x=strpos($from, $c);
    if ($x!==FALSE) $c=$to[$x];
  return $S;
volkris at tamu dot edu 19-Mar-2004 06:25
Regarding christophe's conversion, note that the \x## values should be in double quotes, not single, so that the escape will be applied.
stewey at ambitious dot ca 04-Mar-2004 06:11
This version of macRomanToIso (originally posted by: marcus at synchromedia dot co dot uk) offers a couple of improvements. First, it removes the extra slashes '\' that broke the original function. Second, it adds four quote characters not supported in ISO 8859-1. These are the left double quote, right double quote, left single quote and right single quote.

Be sure to remove the line breaks from the two strings going into strtr or this function will not work properly.

Be careful what text you apply this to. If you apply it to ISO 8859-1 encoded text it will likely wreak havoc. I'll save you some trouble with this bit of advice: don't bother trying to detect what charset a certain text file is using, it can't be done reliably. Instead, consider making assumptions based upon the HTTP_USER_AGENT, or prompting the user to specify the character encoding used (perhaps both).


 * Converts MAC OS ROMAN encoded strings to the ISO 8859-1 charset.
 * @param    string    the string to convert.
 * @return    string    the converted string.
function macRomanToIso($string)

christophe at publicityweb dot com 26-Feb-2004 12:04
Latin1 (iso-8859-1) DONT define chars \x80-\x9f (128-159),
but Windows charset 1252 defines _some_ of them
-- like the infamous msoffice 'magic quotes' (\x92 146).
Dont use those invalid control chars in webpages,
but their html (unicode) entities. See
PS: a '?' in the code means the win-cp1252 dont define the given char.

$badlatin1_cp1252_to_htmlent =
    '\x80'=>'&#x20AC;', '\x81'=>'?', '\x82'=>'&#x201A;', '\x83'=>'&#x0192;',
    '\x84'=>'&#x201E;', '\x85'=>'&#x2026;', '\x86'=>'&#x2020;', \x87'=>'&#x2021;',
    '\x88'=>'&#x02C6;', '\x89'=>'&#x2030;', '\x8A'=>'&#x0160;', '\x8B'=>'&#x2039;',
    '\x8C'=>'&#x0152;', '\x8D'=>'?', '\x8E'=>'&#x017D;', '\x8F'=>'?',
    '\x90'=>'?', '\x91'=>'&#x2018;', '\x92'=>'&#x2019;', '\x93'=>'&#x201C;',
    '\x94'=>'&#x201D;', '\x95'=>'&#x2022;', '\x96'=>'&#x2013;', '\x97'=>'&#x2014;',
    '\x98'=>'&#x02DC;', '\x99'=>'&#x2122;', '\x9A'=>'&#x0161;', '\x9B'=>'&#x203A;',
    '\x9C'=>'&#x0153;', '\x9D'=>'?', '\x9E'=>'&#x017E;', '\x9F'=>'&#x0178;'
$str = strtr($str, $badlatin1_cp1252_to_htmlent);
rortiz_reyes at hotmail dot com 26-Jan-2004 09:15
If you have trouble accessing a file which has an accented or tilde letter (,,,,, or ) via Internet Explorer use the following translation table:

$trans = array("" => "%E1", "" => "%E9", "" => "%ED", "" => "%F3","" => "%FA", "" => "%D1",
"" => "%A1", "" => "%A9", "" => "%AD", "" => "%B3","" => "%BA", "" => "%F1");

To obtain the translation for other special characters not used in English (for example, ), type a fictitious filename on the Netscape 7.1 address bar (including URL, for example and press enter.  Netscape traslates the character while Explorer simply can't handle it.

Seems like another bug on Explorer 6.0...


Ricardo Ortiz R.
j at pureftpd dot org 30-Nov-2003 08:24
Here's a very useful function to translate Microsoft characters into Latin 15, so that people won't see any more square instead of characters in web pages .

function demicrosoftize($str) {
    return strtr($str,
"\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x89\x8a" .
"\x8b\x8c\x8e\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95" .
"'f\".**^\xa6<\xbc\xb4''" .
"\"\"---~ \xa8>\xbd\xb8\xbe");
Fernando "Malk" Piancastelli 29-Oct-2003 01:31
Here's a function to replace linebreaks to html <p> tags. This was initially designed to receive a typed text by a form in a "insert new notice" page and put in a database, then a "notice" page could get the text preformatted with paragraph tags instead of linebreaks that won't appear on browser. The function also removes repeated linebreaks the user may have typed in the form.

function break_to_tags(&$text) {

       // find and remove repeated linebreaks

       $double_break = array("\r\n\r\n" => "\r\n");
       do {
              $text = strtr($text, $double_break);
              $position = strpos($text, "\r\n\r\n");
       } while ($position !== false);

       // find and replace remanescent linebreaks by <p> tags

       $change = array("\r\n" => "<p>");
       $text = strtr($text, $change);

Sanate at seznam dot cz 17-Jul-2003 05:51
// Hello to all Czech and Slovak people!
// I hope this function can be useful and easier to find here,
// than at the original source (and opposite direction). :
// s pozdravem   Filip Rydlo  z Pohodasoftware.Cz

function latin2_to_win1250($text) {  // chce text v iso-88592
$text = StrTr($text, "\xA\xAB\xAE\xB\xBB\xBE",
return $text;
mykel at has dot it 05-Feb-2003 06:08
strtr is a usefull encoding mechinism instead of using str_rot13. you can impliment it when you write usernames to a file, for example. but know that it is easy to crack your encription.
an example:
= "hello";
$from = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
$to =    "zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcba";
$temp = strtr($unencripted, $from, $to);
/* will return svool */
hotmail - marksteward 26-Nov-2002 07:39
Referring to note from 11 October 2000, Thorn (, ), Eth (, ), Esset () and Mu () aren't really accented letters.  , , , are ligatures.  Best to do the following:

function removeaccents($string){
 return strtr(
  array('' => 'TH', '' => 'th', '' => 'DH', '' => 'dh', '' => 'ss',
   '' => 'OE', '' => 'oe', '' => 'AE', '' => 'ae', '' => 'u'));

This would be no good for sorting, as thorn and eth aren't actually found under th and dh.  Also especially redundant because of Unicode!  Still, I'm sure somone can find use for it - perhaps to constrict filenames...

m dot frank at beam dot ag 22-Nov-2002 05:12
to get the ascii equivalent of unicode characters simply use the
utf8_decode() function
marco dot colombo at nexor dot it 12-Nov-2002 06:20
Suppose you're trying to remove any character not in your set, i've found this very helpfull:

function my_remove($string, $my_set, $new=" ", $black="#")

  $first = strtr( $string, $my_set,
                    str_repeat($black, strlen($my_set)) );

  $second = strtr( $string, $first,
                    str_repeat($new, strlen($first)) );

  return $second;

NOTE that all non-wanted character will be replace with $new,
note also that $black must NOT to exist in $my_set.

bisqwit at iki dot fi 10-Aug-2002 10:18
# This shell script generates a strtr() call
# to translate from a character set to another.
# Requires: gnu recode, perl, php commandline binary
# Usage:
#  Set set1 and set2 to whatever you prefer
#  (multibyte character sets are not supported)
#  and run the script. The script outputs
#  a strtr() php code for you to use.
# Example is set to generate a
# cp437..latin9 conversion code.
result="`echo '<? for($c=32;$c<256;$c++)'\
echo chr($c);'\           
         |php -q|recode -f $set1..$set2`"
echo "// This php function call converts \$string in $set1 to $set2";
cat <<EOF  | php -q
`echo -n "$result"\
   |perl -pe "s/([\\\\\'])/\\\\\\\\\\$1/g"
`echo -n "$result"|recode -f $set2..$set1\
   |perl -pe "s/([\\\\\'])/\\\\\\\\\\$1/g"
if(!strlen(\$set1))echo '
echo "strtr(\\\$string,\n  '",
     ereg_replace('([\\\\\\'])', '\\\\\\1', \$set2),
     "',\n  '",
     ereg_replace('([\\\\\\'])', '\\\\\\1', \$set1),
gabi at unica dot edu 17-Jul-2002 05:32
To convert special chars to their html entities strtr you can use strtr in conjunction with get_html_translation_table(HTML_ENTITIES) :

$trans = get_html_translation_table(HTML_ENTITIES);
$html_code = strtr($html_code, $trans);

This will replace in $html_code the by &Aacute; , etc.
symlink23-remove-my-spleen at yahoo dot com 18-Apr-2002 09:33
As noted in the str_rot13 docs, some servers don't provide the str_rot13() function. However, the presence of strtr makes it easy to build your own facsimile thereof:

if (!function_exists('str_rot13')) {
    function str_rot13($str) {
        $from = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ';
        $to   = 'nopqrstuvwxyzabcdefghijklmNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKLM';

        return strtr($str, $from, $to);

This is suitable for very light "encryption" such as hiding email addressess from spambots (then unscrambling them in a mail class, for example).

erik at eldata dot se 23-Nov-2001 09:08
As an alternative to the not-yet-existing function stritr mentioned in the first note above You can easily do this:


or more general:


Just a thought.

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